Loukas Tsoukalis was born in Athens. He studied economics and international relations at the University of Manchester, the College of Europe in Bruges, and the University of Oxford where he obtained his doctoral degree and taught for many years. He later became Jean Monnet Professor of European Integration at the University of Athens and Professor at the European Institute of the London School of Economics and Political Science as the first holder of the Eleftherios Venizelos Chair. He was Visiting Professor at Harvard University (Kennedy School) in 2016. He was also Visiting Professor at the College of Europe for many years.

He has advised the former President of the European Commission and the former President of the European Council.

He is now Emeritus Professor of the University of Athens and Professor at the Paris School of International Affairs (Sciences Po). He is also President of the Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy (ELIAMEP).

His books include several editions of The New European Economy, What Kind of Europe?, In Defence of Europe: Can the European Project Be Saved?  published by Oxford University Press and translated into several European languages.

He has received the Légion d’honneur of the French Republic for his contribution to European integration, as well as various academic distinctions and awards.