In the post-Cold War period, NATO has ceased to act only as a shield against any external threat, and has assumed the added role of guarantor of stability in Europe. The view in certain quarters is that, in accordance with the Alliance’s New Strategic Concept, the Mediterranean area could well become NATO’s new raison d’ etre. The focus of research and analysis for this monograph will be on NATO’s current and future priorities (i.e. interests, threats, and objectives) in the Mediterranean region and the available tools for dealing with the problems at hand. There will be less emphasis on the historical evolution of NATO’s policy towards the Mediterranean, or on the views of NATO members and Mediterranean partners regarding the Mediterranean Dialogue of the Alliance. Since there exists significant research and bibliography on NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue, this study will synthesize a number of excellent works in an effort to suggest a short- and medium-term roadmap for the initiative.