This data series focuses on local dynamics within the Mediterranean region. We define four sub-regions: the Levantine (including Israel, Lebanon, the State of Palestine, and Syria), North Africa (including Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia), European non-EU (including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Turkey), and EU Med (including Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Slovenia, and Spain).

Given the size of each sub-region’s economy, trade in goods is most important for European countries in the Med region (both EU and non-EU). North Africa and the Levantine rank at the bottom end, indicating that trade in goods is comparatively less important relative to their GDP.

Note: Analysis produced by Alma Economics based on data from the UN Comtrade and World Bank databases. Due to incomplete data for 2023, we focus our analysis on 2022. Values are shown for 2022, as a percentage of GDP and include trade only for goods. Algeria, Libya and Syria are excluded from this analysis as there is a lack of available data.

For more information and to explore data relating to the Mediterranean, visit