This policy paper, by Panagiotis Tsakonas, Senior Research Fellow and Head of the Security Programme of ELIAMEP, examines the conditions that need to be fulfilled and the rationale that should be adopted by the EU to revitalize the EU-Turkey relationship, using as its main vehicle the potential upgrade of the EU-Turkey Customs Union.

A “balancing engagement” strategy is proposed as the one the EU should pursue towards Turkey for effectively dealing with the future of EU-Turkey relations, Turkey’s assertive and destabilizing behavior in the Eastern Mediterranean, and the migration challenge.