• Critical infrastructure security is one of the most rapidly developing fields of public and security policy, and an area in which the EU has made significant progress in recent years.
  • The terrorist attacks that rocked the EU in 2015 and 2016, some of which targeted airports, underground railways and trains, made protecting critical infrastructure a key priority.
  • The evolution of threats, with the rapid increase in cybersecurity and hybrid threats, has also led to an overhaul of the European critical infrastructure security framework.
  • In late December 2022, the EU proposed another security Directive, this one on Critical Entities Resilience (the CER Directive).
  • Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the ensuing military conflict has made energy infrastructure security a key priority for the EU.
  • Greece suffers from structural shortcomings and problems in the design of a holistic critical infrastructure security policy.
  • Only in the digital sector has the nation made significant progress towards the creation of a comprehensive protection framework.
  • The critical here reform is to define security standards for all critical infrastructure and to control their implementation.

Read here the Policy brief by Triandafyllos Karatrantos, ELIAMEP Senior Research Fellow (in Greek).