Constantine MICHALOPOULOS is Visiting Scholar, School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University; formerly Director, Economic Policy and Co-ordination, World Bank; Chief Economist USAID.



Books and Monographs

Aid, Trade and Development, Palgrave/Macmillan, 2017

Emerging Powers in the WTO, Palgrave/ Macmillan, 2013.

Migration Chronicles, Point of View Publishing, 2007.

Trade and Poverty, Trade Brief #1, SIDA, Stockholm, 2004.

Special and Differential Treatment of Developing Countries in TRIPS, TRIPS Issues Paper No.2, Quaker United Nations Office, Geneva, 2003.

A Strategy for Trade Integration in South East Europe: Accomplishments and Future Challenges   ELIAMEP, Athens, 2003.

Developing Countries in the WTO, Palgrave, 2001**.

Policies on Imports from Economies in Transition, (with A. Winters), World Bank, 1997.*

Trade Performance and Policy in the New Independent States, (with D. Tarr), World Bank, April, 1996.

Trade in the New Independent States, (with D. Tarr), World Bank, 1994.

Bulgaria: Crisis and Transition to a Market Economy, (2 Vols.) World Bank, 1991.

Aid and Development, with Anne O. Krueger and Vernon Ruttan, John Hopkins University Press, 1989.

A Strategy for Restoration of Growth in Middle‑Income Countries That Face Debt Servicing Difficulties. Development Committee #10, 1986.

Financing Needs of Developing Countries: Proposals for International Action, Essays in International Finance, #110, Princeton University, 1975.

Payments Arrangements for Less‑Developed Countries: The Role of Foreign Assistance, Essays in International Finance, #102, Princeton University, 1973.

The Commercial Demand for Gold in the United States, (with Roger C. van Tassel) U.S. Bureau of Mines, Monograph 23‑69, 1969.

Inter-industry Relations, External Economies and Regional Economic Development, UNIDO, 1968, ID/WG. 9/7.

*Translated into Russian and published in Russian Trade Policy and WTO Accession, S. Dolgov, V. Ponomarev and D.Tarr Eds. World Bank Institute and Russian Foreign Trade Academy, Moscow, 2000.

**Translated into Chinese, Chinese Foreign Economic Relations &Trade Publishing House, 2004.


“Priorities for Tomorrow” (in Greek-Protereotites ya tin Epomeni Mera) Oped in Kathimerini August 5, 2018

 Greek Crisis: The End Game and the Day After” ELIAMEP, June 2018

“China and the Developing Countries in the WTO” Journal of the WTO and China, Vol.5  #1, 2015 pp.3-13.

“Developing Country Trade Policies and Market Access Issues” (with Francis Ng),  Policy Research Working Paper 6463, World Bank 2013.

“Trends in Developing Country Trade, 1980-2010”, (with Francis Ng), Policy Research   Working Paper 6334, World Bank, 2012.

“Special and Differential Treatment: The Need for a Different Approach’ in Policy Approaches: Developing Countries and the WTO, G. P. Sampson and W.B. Chambers   Eds. UNU,2008.

“Global Trade Liberalization and Development” in Esperanza Duran Ed. The Doha Era and Beyond, London: Cameron May, 2008.

“Special and Differential Treatment”, in Princeton Encyclopedia of the World  Economy”Princeton University Press, 2008.

“The World Trade Organization: An Assessment” in Meeting Global Challenges:

International Cooperation in the National Interest, Report of the International Task Force on Public Goods, 2006.

“Developing Countries in the Future WTO”, paper presented at AITIC Seminar, Beyond Doha, WTO Annual Forum, 26 September, 2006.

“Improving Special and Differential Treatment: Some Proposals”, (with B.Hoekman and A. Winters in P.Van Dijk and G. Faber Eds. Developing Countries and the Doha Development Agenda of the WTO, Routledge, 2006.

“Enhancing the Integrated Framework: A New Approach”, paper prepared for the UK Department of International Development, November, 2005.

“WITS (World Integrated Trade Solution) Strategy’, paper prepared for the World Bank Department of Trade, July, 2005.

“Special and Differential Treatment of Developing Countries in the WTO” (with B.Hoekman and A.Winters, World Economy, April, 2004

“The Integration of CIS-7 Countries into the World Trading System” , in C.Shiells and S.Sattar Eds. The Low Income Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States: Progress and Challenges in Transition, IMF and World Bank, 2004.

“The Western Balkans in World Trade: Conclusions and Recommendations for the Future’ (with Daniela Gressani) in Trade Policies and Institutions in the Countries of South-eastern Europe in the Stabilization Process’, World Bank Report No.24460, March 2003.

“More Favourable and Differential Treatment of Developing Countries: Towards a New Approach in the WTO”, (with B. Hoekman and A. Winters), Policy Research Working Paper, #3107 World Bank, 2003.

“Special and Differential Treatment in Agriculture: Proposals for a Development Round” in IDS Bulletin, April, 2003.

“Rules and Options for Special and Differential Treatment” in M.Ingco and J. Nash eds.Agriculture and the WTO, World Bank, 2003.

“The Western Balkans in World Trade”, in Trade, Integration and Transition Proceedings of an International Conference in Memoriam Bela Balassa, R.Grawe and A. InotaI Eds, t World Bank and the Institute for World Economics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 2002.

“Services Trade in the Balkans”, (with V. Panousopoulos) World Bank Technical Paper #530, World Bank, 2002.

“The Western Balkans in World Trade: Some Implications for Greece”, Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, Vol.2, No.2, May 2002.

“The Benefits Derived and the Perspective of Graduation from Least Developed Country Status”, UNCTAD, Trade and Development Board 49th seesion TD/B/49/SC.1CRP.1, October 2002.

“WTO Accession” in B. Hoekman  eds Development Trade and the WTO: A Handbook, World Bank, 2002.

“Rules of Thumb for Trade Policy” (with M.Schiff and D. Tarr) in B. Hoekman et al eds. Development Trade and the WTO: A Handbook, World Bank, 2002

“Latin America in the WTO”, in Patricia Rich Ed. The Future of Latin America in the Global Economy, Palgrave, 2002.

“Trade Policy Reform and Poverty Alleviation” (with B. Hoekman, M. Schiff and D. Tarr), World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper #2733, December 2001

“L’Integration des Economies en Transition au Systeme du Commerce Mondial”, Revue d’Economie Financiere, Special Issue, 2001.

“Developing Country Issues for Multilateral Trade Negotiations” in R. Snape and D.Lal festschrifft in honor of Anne Krueger, Palgrave 2001.

“The Integration of China into the World Trade System: Implications of WTO Accession”, International Forum for China’s Reform, CIRD, Haiku, Hainan, March, 2000.

“The Role of Special and Differential Treatment for Developing Countries in GATT and WTO” World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper #2388, July 2000.

“The Integration of Russia and Ukraine in the World Trading System”, in Ministry of Economic Affairs of the Netherlands, Prospects for European Integration after Ten Years of Transition, The Hague, 1999.

“Developing Country Strategies for the Millennium Round”, Journal of World Trade, Vol.33, No.5, 1999.

“Intellectual Property Rights and Developing Countries”, (with E.Duran) Journal of World Intellectual Property, Vol.2, No.6 1999.

“Trade Policy and Market Access Issues for Developing Countries” Policy Research Working Paper #2214, World Bank, 1999.

“The Developing Countries in the WTO”, World Economy, Vol.22, No.1, 1999.

“The Integration of Transition Economies into the World Trading System”, Policy Research Working Paper #2182, World Bank, 1999.*

“State Trading in Russia”, (with V. Drebentsov), in T. Cottier and P. Mavroidis Eds. State Trading in the Twenty-First Century, Michigan University Press, 1998.

“The Economics of Customs Unions in the Commonwealth of Independent States” (with D.G. Tarr), Post Soviet Geography and Economics, Vol. 38, No.3 1997.*

“Payments and Finance Problems in the CIS”, in B.J. Cohen Ed. International Trade and Finance, Cambridge University Press, 1997.

“Observations on State Trading in the Russian Economy” (with V. Drebentsov), Post Soviet Geography and Economics, Vol. 38.No.5, 1997.

“Trade Policy Reform in the New Independent States,” with David Tarr, The Eurasia Report, January, 1996.

“La Transition Post-Socialiste: Reorganisation des Echanges des Republiques de l’Ancienne URRS,” with David Tarr, in Economies en Transition, Jean-Pierre Gern (ed.), Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, October 1995.

“State Enterprise Reform and the Effectiveness of Macroeconomic Policies”, in Coordinating Stabilization and Structural Reform, IMF, 1995.

“The Policy Dialogue in Theory and Practice”.   Politica Internazionale, Vol. XXI, #4, October-December, 1993.

“Energizing Trade of the States of the Former USSR” (with D. Tarr), Finance and Development, March, 1993.

“The Role of the World Bank in Central and Eastern Europe” in George Winckler Ed. Central and Eastern Europe Roads to Growth, IMF and Austrian National Bank, Washington, 1992.

“Debt and Structural Adjustment” in the 19th SEANZA Central Banking Course Proceedings.  Tokyo, The Bank of Japan, 1992.

“Adjustment and Systemic Reform in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union” in the 19th SEANZA Central Banking Course Proceedings.  Tokyo, The Bank of Japan, 1992.

“Proposals for Post CMEA Trade and Payments Arrangements” (with D. Tarr), in The Transition from Socialism in Eastern Europe, A.L. Hillman and B. Milanovic eds, World Bank, 1992.

“Trade and Payments Arrangements for States in the former USSR’, (with D. Tarr), Studies of Economies in Transformation, #2, World Bank, 1992.

“Central America at a Crossroads” (with S. Saborio), Revista de la Integracion y el Desarollo de Centro America, No.49, December, 1992.

“Development, Trade and International Organizations”, (with David Finch), in A.O. Krueger (ed.) Development with Trade, Institute for Contemporary Studies, San Francisco, 1988.

“External Debt, Developing Countries Policies and the International Economy, A Crisis for Growth”, Fifth Malente Symposium, Proceedings, 1987.

“World Bank Lending for Structural Adjustment”.  Finance and Development. June, 1987.

“World Bank Programs for Adjustment and Growth” in Growth‑Oriented Adjustment Programs, V. Corbo, M. Goldstein and M. Khan (eds.) IMF 1987.

“The Extent and Cost of Protection in Developed‑Developing Country Trade” (with Bela Balassa). Protectionism D. Salvatore (ed.), North­ Holland. 1986.

“The Emerging Role of the Bank in Heavily Indebted Countries”, (with David Bock), Finance and Development, September 1986.

“Liberalizing Trade Between Developed and Developing Countries”, (with Bela Balassa), Journal of World Trade Law, January 1986.

“Private Direct Investment, Finance and Development”, Asian Development Review, December 1985.

“Nontariff Measures” in Trade and Development, Development Committee #6, September 1985.

“Developing Country Policies and the International Trade System” (with Anne O. Krueger) in Hard Bargaining Ahead: U.S. Trade Policy and Developing Countries, E. Preeg (ed.), Overseas Development Council, 1985.

“Policy Aspects of Basic Needs Strategies”, Margaret Crahan (ed.), Human Rights and Basic Needs, Georgetown University Press 1982.

“Institutional Aspects of Developing Countries Debt Problems”, David Denoon (ed.), An American Response to the New International Economic Order, New York University Press 1979.

“Commodity Trade Policy Initiatives and Issues”, F. Gerard Adams and S. Klein (eds.), , 1978. Stabilizing World Commodity Markets: Analysis, Practice and Policy

“Production and Substitution in Two‑Gap Models”, Journal of Development Studies, July 1975.

“Expanding Trade Among Developing Countries: The Role of Limited Preferential Arrangements”, Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. XIII (3), March 1975.

“The Commercial Demand for Gold”, (with Roger C. Van Tassel) Mining Engineering, March 1974.

“Comment” on H. Johnson’s “The Link that Chains”, Foreign Policy, Spring 1973.

“Export Expansion: Demand and Supply Considerations“, Development Digest, Spring 1972.

“Gold As a Commodity: Forecasts of U.S. Use in 1975”, (with Roger C. van Tassel) Western Economic Journal, March 1971.

“Forecasts of the Commercial Demand for Gold in the U.S. in 1975”, A.I.M.E. Proceedings, 1970.

“Trade and Payments”, in Review of Development Performance, A.I.D. Washington: August 1970.

“The Foreign Exchange Constraint, Tariffs and Import Substitution”, Kyklos, Vol. XXIII (2), June 1970.

“Factor Shares and Productivity Growth in Latin America”, American Economic Review, June 1969.

“Labor Migration and Optimum Population”, Kyklos Vol. XXI (l) February 1968.

“Imports and Economic Development: The Greek Experience”, in The Open Economy, P. Kenen and R. Lawrence, (eds.), New York: Columbia University Press, 1968.



Aid and Power – The World Bank and Policy Based Lending, P. Moseley, J. Harrigan and L. Toye, in The World Economy, March, 1992.

Between Two Worlds: The World Bank’s Next Decade, Richard Feinberg, (ed.), Finance and Development, December 1986.

Development Today: A New Look at U.S. Relations With The Poor Countries, R. Hunter and J. Rielly (eds.), War on Hunger, February 1973.

A Theory of Economic Integration for Developing Countries by F. Andic, S. Andic and D. Dosser, Caribbean Studies, Spring 1972.

The Dodecanese: Diversity and Unity in Island Politics by Roger E. Kasperson, Balkan Studies, Winter 1969.

The Economy of Greece by W. Candilis, Balkan Studies, Summer 1969.

Europe at Sixes and Sevens by E. Benoit, Journal of International Affairs, Fall 1960.


Other Papers and Reports

“Payments and Finance Problems in the Commonwealth of Independent States”, ECA Policy Research Working Paper #1587, April 1996.

“Trade and Payments Arrangements in Post‑CMEA, Eastern and Central Europe”, PRE Working Paper # WPS 644, April 1991.

“Payments Arrangements in Eastern Europe in the Post‑CMEA Era”, EMENA Discussion Paper, IDP‑0075, August 1990.

“Debt and Adjustment in EMENA”, with Ishac Diwan, EMENA Working Paper #2, July 1988

“Jamaica ‑ A Medium‑Term Assessment”, Report prepared by the Tripartite Mission (with Azizali Mohammed and Sidney Weintraub), World Bank, May 1986.

“External Debt and the Crisis of Growth in The Middle‑Income Developing Countries”.  Paper presented at the International Seminar on the External Debt of Small Latin American Countries, San Jose, Costa Rica, December 9‑11, 1985.

“U.S. Attitudes Towards Economic Cooperation in Asia”.  Paper presented at the Western Economic Association Meetings, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 1978.

“U.S. Commodity Trade Policy and the Developing Countries”, A.I.D. Discussion Paper #37, Washington: January 1977.

“External Resource Requirements of Developing Countries”.  Paper presented at Southern Economic Association Meetings, Atlanta, Georgia, November 1976.

“The Oil Crisis and the Developing Countries”.  Paper presented at the Conference on the Changing International Economics Order, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, November 1975.

“A Partial Equilibrium Analysis of Sri Lanka Food Policy”, A.I.D., September 1975.

“Commodity Prices and Problems in the International Payments System”.  Paper presented at September 1974 meeting of Eastern Economic Association, Albany New York.

“Growth of Exports and Income in the Developing World: A Neoclassical View”, (with Keith Jay) A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 28, Washington: December 1973.

“Capital Flows from Industrialized Countries”.  Paper presented at December 1973 meeting of Society of Government Economists, New York.

“Policy Issues in Agricultural Commodity Trade”.  Paper presented at U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Policy Seminar, Washington, March 1973.

“Tariff Policy, Equipment Production and Employment in Development Countries”, (with James McCabe) Yale Economic Growth Center, Center Discussion Paper #170, January 1973.

“U.S. Policy Towards Trade Cooperation Among Developing Countries”.  Paper presented at the SEADAG Seminar on Asian Cooperation, Bangkok, January 1972.

“The SDR‑Aid Link” (with R. Warne) A.I.D., January 1972.

“Relative Prices, Capital Goods Imports and the Foreign Exchange Constraint: A Case Study of Argentina”, A.I.D. Discussion Paper N. 23, Washington: 1971.

“Investment Composition and Employment in Turkey”, (with James McCabe) A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 22, Washington: 1971.

“Issues in Agricultural Exports”.  Paper presented at U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Policy Seminar, Washington, August 1971.

“Impact of Multilateral Untying on the U.S. Balance of Payments”, A.I.D., August 1971.

“Regional Allocation and Transfer of Resources in Pakistan”, A.I.D., September 1970.

Draft Report. Advisory Expert Group Meeting on Regional Industrial Planning, Geneva, Switzerland, May‑June 1967, ID/WG. 9/20.